MONITORING-PAM

Fluorometer for Long-term Monitoring of Photosynthesis

The chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM is designed for unattended, long-term and multi-site
monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in air or underwater. At each measuring site, compact and robust
emitter-detector units measure modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and perform saturation pulse analysis.


Monitoring of Cherry laurel leaves (Prunus laurocerasus)

Depending on system configuration, up to seven sites per MONITORING-PAM system can be measured
simultaneously. At each site, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at sample level is recorded so that
relative electron transport rates can be derived from PAR data and photochemical yields of photosystem II.


MONI-HEAD/S Measuring Head of the AQUATIC versions

The multi-site chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM operates several emitter-detector heads in parallel. A clip attached to each head positions the sample at defined distance and angle. Two types of emitterdetector heads are available which are specially designed for long-term operation in the field or under water.

Each emitter-detector head is equipped with a blue power LED. Based on exact timing of function, this LED provides modulated fluorescence excitation light, actinic light and saturation flashes. A lens focuses the LED radiation on the sample, and collects fluorescence. Maximum saturation pulse intensity at sample level exceeds 8500 μmol m-2 s-1.


Measuring end of emitter-detector unit MONI-HEAD/485. Light paths of fluorescence excitation and detection as well as for ambient light measurements are indicated.

The emitter-detector heads detect modulated fluorescence at wavelengths > 650 nm. At the same time, the intensity of external photosynthetically active radiation at sample level is recorded by measuring the light reflected by a diffuse Teflon reflector mounted in-plane with the sample.


MONI-HEAD/485 Measuring Head of the TERRESTRIAL versions with leaf clip and ambient light-reflecting Teflon.

For monitoring of land plants, TERRESTRIAL versions of the MONITORING-PAM are available, and for studies of submarine plants, AQUATIC versions are provided. The ONLINE configurations of both systems require permanent connection to the mains and to a Windows computer via the interface MONI-IB4/LAN (TERRESTRIAL version) or MONI-IB4/LANS (AQUATIC version). Also, computer connection by Ethernet is feasible. The STAND-ALONE configurations can be operated by battery-powered data acquisition units and, thus, are independent of line power.
MONI-HEAD/S Measuring Head of the AQUATIC versions. Close-up with titanium sample clip.
 

ONLINE Configuration

The ONLINE configuration of the TERRESTRIAL version requires permanent power supply to the PC Interface Box MONI-IB4/LAN. The MONI-IB4/LAN provides input sockets for up to four RS-485 lines connecting to MONI-HEAD/485 emitter-detector heads. The LAN function of the MONI-IB4/LAN interface permits integration of the MONITORING-PAM in a local area network. In addition, RS-232 and USB communications are available for direct connection of the MONITORING-PAM with a Windows PC.
Outline of ONLINE configuration of the TERRESTRIAL version of the MONITORING-PAM.

Distances between components of the ONLINE configurations are determined by lengths of communication and power cables. For example, samples can be about 10 m away from the computer in case of USB or RS-232 communication but this distance can be increased to more than 100 m when Ethernet is used.


PC Interface Box MONI-IB4/LAN: RS485 sockets connecting to emitter detector units MONI-HEAD/485


PC Interface Box MONI-IB4/LAN: Sockets for power supply, RS232, Ethernet and USB communication (left to right)
 

 


STAND-ALONE Configuration

The STAND-ALONE configuration of the TERRESTRIAL version of the MONITORING-PAM is suited for independent long-term monitoring of photosynthesis at remote places in the absence of power supply. The system consists of the battery-powered data acquisition system MONI-DA, two solar panels MONI-SP and up to seven emitter-detector heads MONI-HEAD/485.


Outline of STAND-ALONE configuration of the TERRESTRIAL version of the MONITORING-PAM showing the independently working subsystem against green background.

The MONI-DA logs data on a microSD flash card and, additionally, on an 8 MByte ring buffer. Online connection between MONI-DA and a Windows computer can be established using the interface MONI-IB1 and USB communication. By means of a telephone or satellite modem, data can be transmitted to distant computers with little time delay.


Data Acquisition System MONI-DA: Front face with display and magnetic switches


Data Acquisition System MONI-DA: Rear face showing the slot for a microSD card, sockets for input, auxiliary devices as well as for RS485 lines of measuring units MONI-HEAD/485


PC Interface Box MONI-IB1


PC Interface Box MONI-IB1


Monitoring of lichen photosynthesis


Solar panel for MONI-DA


Solar panel for MONI-DA
 

ONLINE Configuration

The ONLINE configuration of the AQUATIC version of the MONITORING-PAM permits measurement of photosynthesis of submersed plants. The ONLINE configuration requires external power supply and is operated by a Windows computer. The interface MONI-IB4/LANS permits connection to a Windows computer via Ethernet, RS-232 or USB communication.


Outline of ONLINE configuration of the AQUATIC version of the MONITORING-PAM. Submersible parts are shown against blue background.

Up to four waterproof emitter-detector heads MONI-HEAD/S can be linked to the interface MONI-IB4/LANS. For this purpose, the interface provides four input sockets to connect underwater cables RS-485/S. The water depth of measuring sites is determined by the length of the RS-485/S underwater cables which is 10 m by default.


MONI-HEAD/S Measuring Head of the AQUATIC versions.


MONI-HEAD/S Measuring Head of the AQUATIC versions. Close-up with titanium sample clip.


Continuous monitoring of photosynthesis in curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) by MONI-HEAD/S sensors. (Limnological research base of the Technical University of Munich, Iffeldorf, headed by Prof. A. Melzer. Prototypes with stainless steel housing are shown.) See also Examples of Application.

 

 


 

STAND-ALONE Configuration

The STAND-ALONE configuration of the AQUATIC version of the MONITORING-PAM is suited for long-term monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence at water depths down to 75 m. The system consists of the waterproof battery-powered data acquisition system MONI-DA/S, the PC interface MONI-IB1/S, and up to seven waterproof emitter-detector heads MONI-HEAD/S.


Outline of STAND-ALONE configuration of the AQUATIC version of the MONITORING-PAM. The independent and submersible subsystem is shown against blue background.

The MONI-DA/S runs for more than 4 weeks on battery with seven MONI-HEAD/S connected and a saturation pulse interval of 15 minutes. Data are logged on an internal ring buffer and on a non-removable microSD card. Data are transferred from the MONI-DA/S to a computer via the interface MONI-IB1/S. Unlike the MONI-DA of the TERRESTRIAL version, wireless data transfer is not feasible underwater.


Back view of MONI-DA/S


MONI-DA/S data acquisition unit and MONI-HEAD/S sensors (prototypes with stainless steel housing are shown).
See also Examples of Application.


MONI-DA/S data acquisition unit on site (Limnological research base of the Technical University of Munich, headed by
Prof. A. Melzer). See also Examples of Application.
 

 

STAND-ALONE Configuration of TERRESTRIAL Version

MONI-Interface USB/0

Interface cable connecting USB port of a computer to an input socket of the data acquisition system MONIDA. The PC Interface USB-0 permits adjustment of MONI-DA settings by the user interface of WinControl-3.

 

Mobile Phone (GPRS) Modem
MONI-MOD1

Robust and waterproof GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) modem for wireless data transfer when a cellular phone network is available. The modem sends data at each time a saturation pulse analysis is carried out. These data are received by a Walz server which provides them online to the user.

 

Satellite Modem

In the absence of coverage by a mobile phone net, a satellite modem can be used for wireless communication. Similar to GPRS modems, data sent from satellite modems are received by a Walz server and provided online to the user.